The Ice Navigation Manual

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Published Date

June 2010

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The Ice Navigation Manual

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This manual, written in collaboration with experienced ice professionals, is essential

for merchant vessels operating in ice conditions. It covers topics such as ice types, ice

conditions, the main ice regions, ice class ships, preparations for a ship and crew, practical aspects of navigating in ice and shiphandling.

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This book balances the considerations for the different ice types that ships' officers may encounter, whether first year or multi-year ice, and the different ice types in the arctic, Great Lakes or the Baltic. A good example of the outcome of a misinterpretation of the ice type a vessel is presented with was given to the whole world in 2007, when the ' MS Explorer ' sank in the Antarctic Ocean. While, as in many incidents, there were numerous factors that uniquely came together, in this case the Ship’s Master was very experienced in first year Baltic Ice conditions but had no experience of multi-year ice . This meant that he failed to correctly identify the ice type as compacted multi year ice and entered it as if it were the first year ice conditions he was familiar with, with disasterous outcome.

Covering Ice Types, Ice Conditions, The Main Ice Regions, Ice Class Ships, Preparations for a Ship and the Crew for Ice the book then moves to the practical aspects of Navigating in Ice, Shiphandling, Working with Icebreakers and Oil Pollution in Ice Covered Waters, this creates a manual that will remain as valid and up to date in 2020 as it is in 2010, although by then there may well need to be a few more case studies about the actions and outcomes of the unwary.


Captain Patrick R M Toomey - Canadian Coast Guard (Rtd)

Captain Toomey spent 27 years with the Canadian Coast Guard, in that time completing 21 navigation seasons in the Canadian Arctic on Canadian icebreakers, 18 of these seasons as Icebreaker Captain. During that period in command he completed his first four transits of the Northwest Passage, the first of these transits being only the 17th transit ever recorded , which is astounding when you consider that the first transits were made in the 15th Century and, even today, we are only recording the 200th.

Since taking early retirement from the Canadian Coast Guard in 1991, Patrick has consulted as an Ice Navigation Specialist. During that time he has made a number of appearances in court as an expert witness and assessor for litigation involving ice navigation, twelve seasons as Ice Pilot/Lecturer aboard 6 Russian icebreakers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, including 6 voyages to the North Pole and 7 further transits of the Northwest Passage plus 1 transit of the Siberian Northern Sea Route.

February 2009 saw him complete his 26th voyage into Antarctic waters. Of his recent Antarctic sojourns, one has been a circumnavigation on a Russian icebreaker of the Antarctic continent and 16 have been as Ice Pilot on the Holland America Line vessels ‘Rotterdam’, ‘Amsterdam’ and ‘Prinsendam’. Other consultant work he has undertaken, has included training in ice navigation for the Canadian Coast Guard, the Chilean Navy and in the private sector. His counsel on matters concerning ice navigation is sought by the industry’s press on both sides of the Atlantic and he has contributed to the development of international regulations concerning ice navigation.

Captain Michael Lloyd FNI

As Master, Captain Lloyd commanded a wide variety of ships and trades ranging from vessels of 300dwt to 300,000dwt and holds Pilotage exemption certificates for a number of ports around the world. For 10 years he represented Shipmasters on the General Council of Nautilus, is a Member of the Court of the Honourable Company of Master Mariners, a Freeman of the city of London, a Fellow of the Nautical Institute and a Younger Brother of Trinity House.

During his career, he was Chief Officer and in Command of ships in ice in the Baltic, the Arctic, the Antarctic, Northern Alaska, Northern Canada and Russian waters on a variety of Ice Class vessels, ranging from 80,000dwt bulk carriers to a 3000dwt Russian Deepsea Ice Breaker and Supply vessel.

David J. House - Author

David House has authored many maritime books in recent years and gained his ice experience sailing in winter from the North Atlantic via the Bell Isle Strait and the frozen waters of the St Lawrence River, towards the ports of Quebec, Montreal and Toronto. This is combined with experience in the Baltic Sea that enhanced his ice experience and the demanding task of navigating from the Kiel Canal in pack ice in the depths of winter with few navigation marks which proved a most demanding task.

David continues to teach all aspects of seamanship and navigation including Ice Operations.

David Dickins - Advisor on oil pollution in ice

David Dickins, P.Eng. has a broad range of Arctic offshore experience gained through 38 years of projects focusing on offshore oil exploration and development and the marine transportation of oil in Arctic waters. Since starting his own engineering consulting firm in 1978, David has developed a worldwide reputation as an expert in Arctic environmental studies, remote sensing, shipping routes in ice, oil spills, sea ice conditions and air cushion vehicles. His background includes the management of hundreds of research projects for government and industry clients and authoring or contributing to over 70 conference papers and journal articles. David played a key role in organizing and chairing six international conferences on Arctic environmental and transportation issues. Since 1974, David has played a significant role in 10 experimental oil spill projects in ice and cold waters off the Canadian Arctic and East Coasts and most recently in the Norwegian Barents Sea. He has worked and lived on the ice throughout the Canadian and US Arctic, from the Beaufort Sea to the Canadian Arctic Islands.

1 Ice Types

1.1 Fresh Water Ice

1.2 Sea Ice

1.3 Glacial Ice

1.4 Fast Ice

1.5 Pack Ice

1.6 Ice Reports and Forecasts

1.7 Ice Movement

1.8 Ice Deterioration

2 Reporting Ice Conditions
2.1 The Egg Code

2.2 Colour Coding Ice Charts

2.3 Ice Symbols and Indications associated with International Ice Charts (Nomenclature)

2.4 Iceberg Coding and Message Preparation

3 The Ice Regions

3.1 Northern Ice

3.2 Southern Ice

3.3 Regional Arctic Ice Differences

3.4 Antarctica

3.5 Sovereignty

4 Ice Class Ships

4.1 Classification Standards

4.2 Ice Design Considerations

4.3 Cost of Ice Strengthening

4.4 ‘Winterisation’ and De-Icing

4.5 Double Acting Vessels

4.6 Ice Breaking Propulsion Plant

4.7 Mooring Equipment

4.8 Insurance

4.9 The Icebreakers

4.10 Emergency Response Vessels (ERVs).

5 Preparing a Ship for Ice

5.1 Ballast and Trim

5.2 Fresh Water Tanks and Fire Lines

5.3 Main Engine

5.4 Sea Inlets

5.5 Fuel, Water and Provisions

5.6 Searchlights

5.7 Deck Protection

5.8 Ice Accretion and Stability

5.9 Considerations in Ice for Specific Ship Types

5.10 Cruise Ships in Ice Covered Waters

5.11 De-Icing

5.12 Safety

5.13 Fire fighting

5.14 Checklist for Deck Department

5.15 Checklist for the Engine Department

6 Preparing the Crew for Ice

6.1 Training for Ice Conditions

6.2 Clothing

6.3 Accident and Emergencies

6.4 General Crew Comfort

6.5 Medical

7 Navigation in Ice

7.1 Evidence of Ice

7.2 Passage Planning

7.3 Watch Keeping Practices when Approaching Ice Regions

7.4 Operation in Pack Ice

7.5 Visibility

7.6 Position Fixing in Ice Conditions

7.7 Visual Detection of Ice

7.8 Radar Use in Ice Conditions

7.9 Additional Communications Inside Ice Regions

7.10 Ice Information Service

7.11 North Atlantic Ice Patrol

7.12 Local Auxiliary Ice Reports

7.13 Aerial Ice Observations

7.14 Satellite Services

8 Shiphandling

8.1 Entering the Ice

8.2 Approaching the Ice Edge

8.3 Underway in Ice

8.4 Natural Aids to Navigation

8.5 An Example of Navigating through Ice

8.6 Beset in Ice

8.7 Grounding and Stranding in Ice

8.8 Anchoring in Ice

8.9 Damage Control

8.10 Inland Navigation: Canal and Lock Systems

9 Working with Icebreakers

9.1 Icebreaker Assistance for Beset Ships

9.2 Ice Convoys

9.3 Requirements for Escorted Ships

9.4 Towing in Ice

9.5 Damage in Ice

9.6 Berth Problems

10 Oil Pollution in Ice Covered Waters

10.1 Introduction and Overview

10.2 Incidents and Accidents in Ice-covered Waters

10.3 Spill Scenarios

10.4 Oil in Ice Behaviour

10.5 Detection and Spill Surveillance

10.6 Oil Recovery and Removal

10.8 Some Useful Resources

10.9 Selected References: Arctic Oil Spill

During his sea-going career, David House spent four years engaged on the Irish Sea/Scottish Ferry routes, with Roll-on Roll-off freight and passenger vehicle operations. He continues his marine research and writing practice while lecturing in ‘Maritime Subjects’ in the United Kingdom.

He has published work across a spectrum of topics, including: General Seamanship, Navigation, Anchor Work, Marine Safety & Survival and Helicopter Operations. His works continue to be widely read in most maritime quarters around the world both ashore and afloat by practicing mariners and marine students.

Having served on a variety of vessels including: Dry and Bulk Cargo Ships, Passenger Liners, Containers, Reefer, and Ferries. This background with such diverse sea-going experience, together with over twenty years within Marine Education, provides an ideal source for his past and future works.

Title: The Ice Navigation Manual
Number of Volumes: 1
Edition: First
Number of Pages: 396
Product Code: WS1061K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-905331-59-8 (9781905331598), ISBN 10: 1-905331-59-2 (1905331592)
Published Date: June 2010
Binding Format: Hardback
Book Height: 287 mm
Book Width: 165 mm
Book Spine: 30 mm
Weight: 1.60 kg
Author: David J House

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